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For example, in Indiana the age of consent is 16 but it is illegal for a person over 18 to have sex with anyone under 18 if they work at their school, are their parent or a stepparent, or are a person recruiting them to join the military.
A female adult is not guilty of an offence under subsection (1) – (a) if she honestly believed that the male person was sixteen years of age or more; or (b) if the female adult is not more than three years older than the male person and the court is of the opinion that evidence discloses that as between the female adult and the male person, the female adult is not wholly or substantially to blame. It is determined in Part 14 of the Criminal Code - SEXUAL OFFENCES -Sexual Offences Against Minors - by Article 143.
The term "position of trust or authority" is not defined in the Code but the courts have ruled that parents, teachers, and medical professionals hold a position of trust or authority towards youth they care for or teach.
Section 153 (1.2) of the Code provides that a judge can infer whether or not a relationship is "exploitative" by considering its nature and circumstances including how old the youth is, the difference in ages between the partners, how the relationship evolved, and the degree of control or influence that the older partner has over the youth.
Non-violent sexual contact with persons under the age of consent may be punished with varying degrees of severity, ranging from a misdemeanor with a simple fine, to a felony with a punishment equivalent to rape.
Different ages may apply if one partner is in a position of power or authority over the other, such as a teacher, manager, coach, parent or stepparent.
A fourteen- or fifteen-year-old can consent to sexual activity with a partner who is less than five years older than they.